7 STEPS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING

Dr Jinger Gottschall explains how to get the results you deserve.

Want to get the best results from the time you spend working out? Keep these seven tips front of mind.

Dr Jinger Gottschall is a university professor, studio owner, Les Mills instructor and former triathlete who has dedicated her career to academic fitness research. Here she shares some of her favorite fitness facts – highlighting exactly what it takes to shape a safe and effective training regime.

#1 CHOOSE THE RIGHT MOTIVATION

If you’re primarily motivated by external goals (how you look), it’s harder to maintain good exercise habits over time. You have a better chance of making a lifestyle change if you think about what internal factors motivate you. It might be lowering cholesterol, improving body composition, boosting energy, productivity and happiness. Choose internally-focused motivators like these and sticking to exercise will be much easier. Write your goals down. And if you want, share them. Sharing your goals with other like-minded people is proven to boost your chances of success through support.

#2 PROGRESSIVE TRAINING IS THE BEST BET

If you’re new to exercise or haven’t exercised regularly for over six months, studies show a slow, progressive training plan is the best way to build a habit and prevent burnout. Try not to do more than the plan specifies – by doing too much too soon you increase the risk of injury, not to mention frustration and the likelihood of giving up.

#3 VARIETY BRINGS RESULTS

The best results come when you follow a weekly regime that features a combination of cardio, strength and flexibility training. This was highlighted by a study involving 25 non-active, healthy adults who completed a training plan featuring a combination of LES MILLS™ workouts. After 30 weeks the exercisers saw an increase in lean tissue (+5 percent), a decrease in both body mass (-4 percent), and LDL cholesterol (-6 percent). And their cardiovascular fitness increased by an average of 50 percent. Thanks to results like these we can now confidently advise that a varied work out regime will significantly improve your chances of living a longer, healthier life.

#4 CHOOSE HIGH REP, STRENGTH TRAINING

Don’t shy away from lifting weights. Incorporating low load, high-repetition strength training can build strong, lean muscle and do amazing things for your fitness. We studied 20 non-active, healthy adults following a regime featuring three RPM™ cycling workouts and three BODYPUMP™ strength training sessions per week. After 24 weeks not only did cardiovascular fitness significantly increase, but bone density in the arms, legs, pelvis, and lumbar spine were statistically greater.

#5 LOW WEIGHTS MAXIMIZE CALORIE BURN

High repetition training with low weights can maximize calorie burn. Studies show the mean amount of energy expenditure during a BODYPUMP workout, using faster repetitions with lighter weights, is 29 percent greater than in the same duration of slower repetitions with heavier weights.

#6 ADD HIIT

If you already participate in three to five workouts per week, consider embracing the magic of high-intensity interval training. With the addition of just two 30-minute HIIT workouts a week you can see your health, fitness, and strength leap ahead. In a study of 84 healthy adults it took just six weeks of twice-weekly LES MILLS GRIT™ workouts for them to enjoy a decrease in body fat (-2 percent), a reduction in triglycerides (-16 percent), an increase in cardiovascular fitness (+6 percent) and improved back strength (+21 percent).

#7 DON’T FORGET YOUR CORE

Squeezing in the odd set of crunches isn’t going to give you the results you deserve. Core exercises that require shoulder (deltoid) and hip (glute) activity produce greater muscle activation in the abdominal muscles than exercises such as a crunch. Research shows that incorporating integrated core training into your workout regime can improve endurance, enhance stability and reduce injury.

Jinger Gottschall, PhD, is an Associate Professor at Penn State University, and former triathlete who learned first-hand the injury-inducing effects of doing nothing but cardio exercise. She has subsequently led numerous studies into the effectiveness of various exercise regimes and works closely with Bryce Hastings, Les Mills Head of Research, to test all sorts of exercise programming. When it comes to getting the best results from the time you spend working out, this woman knows the way to go.

This piece originally appeared on lesmills.com.

 

It Starts Today!

ENOUGH! Stop thinking and start doing. Yes, we’re talking to you!
We get that it can be difficult to start something new, so why not ease into it with these few ideas and soon you’ll be up early for a run and then heading to the gym before bed!

SWEAT BEFORE YOU SHOWER

As soon as you wake up, do a few sit-ups on your bed. Whilst you’re brushing your teeth, do a wall-sit or a few squats. Take some of the free time you have to include one or two exercises which will quickly become your morning routine. Get all of this done before you shower, and you will have done your workout for the day!

STAND UP

Sitting at a desk all day can get boring, so why not make it a little more exciting by standing up and walking around. It may seem silly but stretching your legs can help you feel better, as well as help you add some fitness to your workday. Instead of emailing a colleague, walk over to them, go on a short stroll outside on your lunchbreak, even if you just stand up and stretch for 30 seconds every hour, that’s something! It’s so much better for you to be stood up than sat down for most of the day.

ARE YOU REALLY HUNGRY?

One-way that people undo all the hard work they have put into their fitness routine is by snacking or eating too much. Obviously, if you’re hungry you need to eat, and you should be eating good, solid meals throughout the day to give you the energy to keep you going. However, snacking unhealthily or eating a lot when you think you’re hungry is counterproductive. If you’re not hungry enough to eat an apple, you’re not really hungry, you’re just bored. Always keep that in mind when you are feeling peckish and are heading over to the cupboard to grab something. Instead, go for a piece of fruit, and if you don’t fancy that, maybe you aren’t hungry after all.

ADD EXERCISE TO YOUR EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES

This is a super simple one to do, and you can switch it up each day or have a certain routine that you follow. Basically, when cooking, jog around the kitchen if you are waiting for something to boil, if you’re watching tv why not hold a plank during the adverts or do push ups. Just keep yourself moving, and by tying it in with your everyday activities, it won’t feel odd or boring.

USE THE STAIRS

When out and about, if you can, use the stairs instead of elevators or lifts. Climbing stairs raises your heart rate which is great cardio, as well as increases your core muscle strength. So, choose the stairs! It’s an easy workout to fit in without you even realising, and if you start now, whether out shopping or in a hotel, it will become second nature to use the stairs. It’s recommended that you walk at least 10,000 steps per day, so why not do something to help towards that goal!

WALK OR CYCLE

If you live close to where you work or where your daily commute takes you, why not walk or cycle? As well as getting in some exercise, your heart rate will rise which will fill your body with good hormones, making you happier and ready for the day ahead of you. If you’re a little further away, why not cycle, however if this isn’t possible, go on a bike ride when you get home from work or make it a regular weekend activity.

There isn’t time for excuses anymore, we’ve given you all you need to start doing what you’ve been talking about, so today is the day! Whether you decide to exercise whilst watching tv, think about your food, cycle to work, or take on board all of these ideas, you’re taking a step in the right direction, and all you need to do now is stick at it!

Are you sure that’s healthy?

We should all be eating healthily. Obviously treating ourselves is nice, but our focus should be on giving our body everything it needs in the best way possible. But is the “healthy” food that you’re picking up in the supermarket really as healthy as you think? Here are a few products that you should avoid or cut down on:

ITEMS THAT SAY ‘DIET’ OR ‘LIGHT’ ON THE PACKAGING

Items that pop up in the shops that are labelled as ‘diet’ can seem enticing, especially if we’re on a diet and we want to treat ourselves but don’t want to feel guilty about it. But have you ever looked at the ingredients for some of these products? Do you know what everything is? Instead of the normal item containing sugar, the ‘light’ version will be made from artificial products and other chemicals that aren’t really that great for us. Let’s take diet lemonade for example. Diet lemonade doesn’t have all the sugars that normal lemonade does, but the sugar will have been replaced by artificial sweeteners and chemical flavourings, so it tastes like the original. When you break down what is in diet products, it’s scary, and probably best to stick to a smaller amount of the original or skip it all together.

PRE-PREPARED FOODS

Ready meals and other foods that are all sorted for us make life so much easier, but they can often be full of ingredients no one has heard of before. Companies use flavour enhancers, cheap ingredients, preservatives, and all sorts of chemicals to add to the shelf-life of these foods. Always read the label before buying anything, and if you’re unsure on any of the ingredients, internet search them or put it back. With the time it takes to find something, you could’ve started making something a lot healthier anyway.

FRUIT JUICES

This probably won’t come as a surprise to anyone, but fruit juices contain so much sugar. Most juices do contain fruit, but many that line the supermarket shelves just contain chemicals that taste like fruit, so you’re basically drinking fruit-flavoured sugar water. That’s crazy! Even juices that are 100% fruit contain a lot of sugar from the fruit itself and the fiber that is great has been taken out. Treat fruit juices like fizzy drinks. They’re nice for a treat but stick to water.

SALAD DRESSINGS

Having a salad is great, and a great healthy option to go for. However, salads and vegetable dishes can be made unhealthy with on simple step of adding a salad dressing or sauce. So many dressings are loaded with sugar, vegetable oil, trans fats and a lot of artificial chemicals. By adding a dressing to your salad, you make it an unhealthy meal and might not get all the benefits that you would’ve done. Make sure to check the ingredients of whatever salad dressing you use, or even make your own. It’s super simple to do with items that you will already have.

CEREALS AND CEREAL BARS

Many cereal boxes boast that the product inside is ‘low in fat’ or has ‘low grain’, however when you look at the ingredients list, a lot of what’s listed is refined grains, sugar and artificial chemicals. So many people feel that they are getting a great product, but with what’s inside cereal, it’s scary to think about what we’re actually eating. Leading into cereal bars, these are also full of sugars and are often covered with chocolate or contain sugary pieces to make the bar look more appealing. Always look and think about what you’re buying, especially if you are getting cereal bars to eat after a workout or even to put in your children’s lunchboxes.

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FROM THE SUPERMARKET

Finally, let’s look at someone hardly anyone would think about. Obviously, fruits and vegetables are the healthiest things you can eat, however produce can easily sit out in boxes or on shelves for weeks after it has been harvested. In this time, nutrients can deplete, meaning they are not as good for you as the day they were picked. A way around this is to pick your own fruit which can easily be done this time of year, or shop at farmers markets where products are fresh and organic, meaning they are better tasting and better for you.

You’re probably thinking that you’re a bit stuck after reading this, but you shouldn’t. Everything eaten in excess is unhealthy, but if you think about it, look at the ingredients, and really put some effort into what you’re doing, you will be eating healthily. The truly healthy foods are the ones that don’t need to claim that they’re healthy, and the real foods don’t need an ingredient list because the real food is the ingredient. Next time you go shopping, look before you buy, you will thank yourself for it.

How Much Should Workouts Hurt?

You need to be in tune with pain if you want to safely train.

THE NOT SO PAINFUL TRUTH ABOUT PAIN AND EXERCISE
By Emma Hogan

The transformative effects of exercise don’t come when you take it easy. But how much should you be suffering in order to get results?

We all know that you don’t get results when you sit in your comfort zone, but is there an ideal degree of “discomfort”? When it comes to how much exercise should hurt, says Bryce Hastings, Physiotherapist and Les Mills Head of Research, there are no hard and fast rules. For the most part it depends on the type of suffering – put simply, while it’s okay for exercise to feel uncomfortable, it should never be painful.

“Too often people don’t distinguish between the discomfort that comes from fatigue and the feeling of pain,” says Hastings.

Unfortunately, the confusion between fatigue and pain can be off-putting if you’re only at the beginning of your exercise journey. “When you’re just starting out you sweat, you get an increased heart rate and you feel uncomfortable – all of this is the stress response that comes from exercise,” says Hastings. It’s not until you become accustomed to regular training that you learn this stress and fatigue is part of the deal. Your body embraces it because you know that it goes away quickly.

Fatigue is your friend. Transformation happens when you push your body into the fatigue zone.

If you want to get gains in fitness or strength, fatigue is your friend. Transformation happens when you push your body into the fatigue zone. But should all workouts push you to the same level of fatigue?

Hastings explains there are five exercise intensity zones, and a sound weekly workout regime involves spending time in each zone. Ideally, you should be exercising at a moderate to hard intensity (where the discomfort of fatigue probably sits between 6.5 and 8.5 out of 10), as this will help improve aerobic fitness and promote fat burn. Pushing your body to its maximum training zone (where the discomfort of fatigue hits 8.5 to 10 out of 10) will help you develop maximum performance, but you only want these spikes of intensity a couple of times a week. He also cautions that feeling flogged during exercise is not the only measure of a workout’s value – while exercising at a very low intensity is unlikely to generate fatigue, low intensity activities like yoga and core training can improve overall health and help recovery.

If it’s not fatigue-based discomfort, it’s a pain.

When it comes to distinguishing between types of pain, there are two things you can do:
1) Mentally split yourself in half and evaluate where it hurts. If you have pain in the same place on both sides and it’s the same type of pain, then it’s probably delayed onset muscle soreness (or DOMS). In most cases this is nothing to worry about. You can check out some tips on how to deal with it here.

2) If you have a specific point of pain that’s on one side of your body but not on the other, and that pain is above 3 out of 10, and interfering with your function, then you’re possibly suffering an injury. In this situation we suggest you seek professional advice.

It’s the location of the pain that matters most

The benefits of your training come from discomfort in the muscles, not the joints. So if you’ve got any joint pressure or discomfort it’s an issue. Let’s take squats for example. Squats are all about working your quads and glutes, so if you’re squatting and your quads start getting sore that’s to be expected. But if you start to get a lot of pressure in your lower back that’s a warning sign, because that’s not the intended target. It indicates that no longer is the soreness born from muscle fatigue, it’s possibly pain coming from compressed joint tissue. It’s the same as if you’re doing the overhead press and suddenly your neck starts getting sore – that’s not the intended target, so could be an issue.

How much should you suffer?

The amount of suffering you subject your body to should depend on the exercise you’re doing. If you’re using a leg press machine all you need to worry about is pressing, so you are safe to go to volitional failure – which means going to the point where you actually can’t push anymore. But if you’re doing weighted squats it’s a different story. Fatigue will often make things more difficult when you’re at the bottom of the squat, which can be dangerous if you encounter failure at this point, so normally you might finish your set at 85 percent fatigue. You can push the fatigue point further out if you have a safety mechanism such as a spotter, someone who stands over you ready to take the load if needs be.

Warning signs: when to take action

The major warning signs are unilateral (one-sided) pain, any joint pressure or discomfort, and sudden onset sharp pain. And sometimes sudden onset weakness can be sign that something is not right.

Hastings says these are all warning signs: “Pressure in the front of the knee while you squat, pain in your elbows when you grip, pressure in your neck or upper back when you’re doing an overhead press, pain at top of the shoulder while you bench press.”

Of course muscle and joint pain are not the only discomfort people associate with exercise. I am thinking about that awful gasping sensation that comes when you just can’t get enough air in your lungs, or when you’ve raised your heart rate so high it feels like it will pump its way past your ribs and out of your chest. But Hastings says that if you’re fit and healthy you should be able to push your body to its max – reaching high levels of exertion without any significant concerns.

His advice? Don’t shy away from discomfort but always think about what your objective is, and if it feels slightly off, it probably is.

PAIN: WHAT YOU NEED TO REMEMBER
• It’s important to identify the difference between fatigue and pain.
• Fatigue is good – as transformation happens when your body hits the fatigue zone.
• It’s okay for exercise to cause discomfort in your muscles – but you shouldn’t feel any discomfort in your joints.
• Post-workout pain that is equal on both sides of the body is most likely delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).
• If you suffer from one-sided pain, joint pain or sudden onset sharp pain seek professional advice.

Lost Your Fitness Mojo?

It’s June. Half the year has nearly gone. All those fitness resolutions you made in January, oh wait, did you remember about those fitness resolutions you made? It’s ok to have fallen out of your routine, but let’s not wait another 5 months, come on, let’s get your fitness mojo back!

What?

What resolutions did you make at the start of the year? If you still have the same goals now, look over them again and really think about what you want to achieve and tell yourself that you will do it. If your plans have changed, change your resolutions too. It’s not too late to start! Write down what you want to achieve and put it somewhere you will always see it, whether that’s on a mirror, above your bed, or even as your phone lock screen. Keep reminding yourself of what your goals are.

Why?

Why did you choose these resolutions? Is it to lose weight, tone up, prepare for an event? Whatever it is, when you don’t feel in the mood for exercise, remind yourself of the reasons why you are doing this. Your goals must be important otherwise you wouldn’t be reading this. Tell your friends and family why you have chosen these resolutions, and that they need to remind you of those reasons when you tell them that you don’t want to do it later. Sometimes having someone else to push you on is more motivating than just yourself.

When?

When can you start? Now is best, but if not, take some time to plan a fitness routine that'll work best with you and your life. Whether that’s fitting in exercise when you wake up, after work, or over the weekend, figure out when works best for you and stick to that plan if you can. Obviously it may be difficult at first if you have other commitments or feel you can't reserve a certain time for fitness, but keep pushing yourself to find something that works. The more you stick to the routine, the more the routine will stick to you and it will become second nature to exercise at certain times of the day or head to the gym on certain days.

Where?

Where will you put your resolutions to play? Whether joining the gym or doing workouts at home, make sure you’re doing what’s best for your body and what will help you see the change you want to see. Nothing crazy will happen overnight as change takes time, so wherever you choose to be, put your body first and don't push yourself. Like we’ve said, it will take time, but stick at it and you will see the results you’re aiming for. Wherever you choose to bring your goals to life, make the most of the time you spend there. It can be so easy to get distracted, but get your head in the game and focus on what and why you have chosen the goals you have. Where you then choose to be should come quite naturally.

How?

How will you stick to your resolutions? Well, hopefully you’ll keep telling yourself why you have chosen to do what you’re doing, and with a weekly plan you follow, your resolutions will become part of your routine. Another thing to do is visit your local gym and speak to a personal trainer who will give you tips and help you reach your goals. They’re great motivators and might be the answer you’re looking for. If, however, you feel you will be fine on your own, that’s great. Follow your plan, and hopefully by the end of the year your resolutions will just be a part of your everyday life and you'll wonder why you ever stopped aiming towards your goals..

Will you stick to your resolutions?

It’s Good to Try New Things

Want to try something new? Maybe not. It can be difficult to be spontaneous as it’s scary and you’re basically walking into the unknown. But what if the new thing you try is the greatest thing you are ever part of? What if it teaches you something new about yourself? You won’t know if you don’t try, so here are some reasons to try something new…

Overcome Fear

Most people don’t try something new as they’re worried to do something they haven’t tried before. It’s different. It’s strange. You don’t know what to expect. What if I don’t like it? But what if you do? Fear will always hover over you when doing something new, but fear can’t stop you from doing everything. Overcome your fears and soon big things won’t seem as big and scary, and you will be more open to trying new things.

Increase Confidence

Being more spontaneous and trying things you wouldn’t normally do takes confidence. Showing that you’re able to do new things proves to yourself that you have the confidence to keep doing things you might not say yes to. This increase in confidence can help you in your everyday life too!

Learn A New Skill

The new thing you’re interested in may involve learning a new skill. It can seem hard to try something new and possibly have failure as an option, but if you don’t try, you won’t ever know! With persistence and practice, you will gain a new skill or hobby. How great would it be to add something to your CV or tell your friends and family about? Don’t just stick to the skills you know, keep learning and getting better.

Helps You to Break Out of a Rut

By having the same routine every day, it can become boring and difficult to get out of. Trying something new allows you to break out of a rut which you may find fun, refreshing and enjoyable for you. The thing you try, you might even add to your routine to keep it fresh and exciting, rather than just the same as normal. Whether you choose to just go on a walk or try a new class somewhere, new isn’t always as bad as everyone says.

Stimulate Creativity

When you try new things, you allow your brain to think outside of its normal routine which pushes it to be more creative. Putting your brain into new situations forces you to really think, and by training your brain like this without even realising, it will eventually rub off in other areas of your life, allowing you to see everything in a new light. Many creative people say the key to their success is trying new things, allowing them to grow and express themselves in new ways.

We bet trying something new doesn’t seem that bad anymore. Go on, do something you’ve never done before and see how much you enjoy it!

Why Sweat is a Good Thing

HOW GETTING SWEATY MAKES US HUMAN

By Margo White for Fit Planet

Working out and working up a sweat go hand-in-hand. But perspiration is about much more than keeping cool. According to Dr Vybarr Cregan-Reid it also sets humans apart from other animals, and has helped us climb to the top of the evolutionary ladder.

MARGO WHITE: Why do we sweat?

DR VYBARR CREGAN-REID: We have different kinds of sweat that is produced on different parts of our bodies. It’s mainly our thermoregulation technology, which allows us to stay cool on a hot day. It also creates our scent, our body odor. Everybody knows about the smelly parts, the groin and armpits, but that involves different types of sweat glands, to create a specific scent that is as unique as our DNA. But the main function of most of our sweat glands is thermoregulation.

Before we go on, you’re a lecturer in Victorian literature, so how did you become so interested in (and a bit of an expert) in sweat?

It’s all because I wrote a book on running, Footnotes; How Running Makes us Human. A lot of that is about how running inculcates creativity, how this almost meditative activity has very specific neurological effects on the brain. So I’d go out for a run, and come back with an idea, and this interest in sweat was one of them. It suddenly became clear, when I was out running, that sweat is an evolutionary imperative that has given us an advantage over other mammals, in terms of hunting.

Sweat is about as essential to being human as having a brain is, and has played a key role in the evolutionary success of our species. We think of it as a sort of throwback to our previous animal selves, but the reason we’re at the top of food chain is partly due to the fact we sweat, but also the way we sweat, on particular parts of our body.

Can you elaborate?

We are terrible sprinters, as a species. Animals the size of our palm can run faster than we can. But in certain environments, we have distinct advantages over other animals, because animals, like antelope or deer, aren’t able to lose heat as efficiently as we can. And because they’re quadruped, more of their body is exposed to sun on a hot day. So not only do they capture more heat from the sun, but they’re less efficient at losing it. We’re two-legged so we’re slower, but we don’t take on as much heat, and we have efficient cooling technology all over our body.

So two legs are better than four? 

Yes, if you start chasing an antelope, it will skip away with the airiest disdain. But if you keep plodding along, at a jogging pace, you’ll catch up with the antelope. It will run away again, but once you’ve repeated this several times the antelope won’t be able to lose enough heat and will get to the point of heat exhaustion. Any animal that is good at sprinting is not good at running long distances, but many aspects of the human body are optimized for running long distances.

But horses sweat, don’t they?

Horses are the only animals that sweat in a way that is most similar to the way humans sweat. But they have a sort of waterproof coat, so they have a different protein in their sweat that allows it to foam up, pass through their waterproof coat and evaporate. So horses lose heat by sweating and we do too, and when you compare us to other animals, we really shift a lot of heat.

As you said, there are types of sweat, released on different parts of the body.

We have two main kinds of sweat glands, eccrine and apocrine. Eccrine glands – the thermoregulation glands – are the most numerous type. They’re found all over the body, particularly on the palms, soles of the feet and forehead. Having eccrine sweat glands on an exposed forehead, for instance, means the blood going to your brain is kept cool, so we can think while we’re in motion. The top of the head, meanwhile, is shaded by hair, so it also takes on less heat. I think that’s amazing.

The other type of sweat, the apocrine sweat, is mainly for scent and found in the armpits and the groin. Unfortunately for us, its job is to smell – it’s like our olfactory fingerprint. And because it’s released in areas where it can’t evaporate quickly, it comes into contact with bacteria, starts to break down, and starts to smell. It’s a different kind of sweat, with a different function.

The sweat on our arms, legs and forehead doesn’t smell because there’s quite a lot of salt in it, and the bacteria doesn’t like it. This means it usually gets to evaporate before bacteria get to work on it.”

What about the smelly feet?

The sweat from our feet doesn’t smell like the sweat in our groin or armpits. The sweat on our feet is clean sweat, but the problem is that our feet stay covered for such long periods. Shoes have been around for a long time, about 40,000 years, but we’ve been around for two to three million years, on and off. We have smelly feet because we put them in a warm closed-in environment – we put them in ten-inch coffins, which gives the bacteria plenty more time to go to work. If you wore something similar on your hands all day, your hands would smell too.

We tend to have mixed feelings about sweat …

In certain environments, like the gym, it’s a badge of honor, but taboo in other situations. In job interviews it’s rather awkward when someone goes to shake your hand and you have sweaty palms.

The reason you have sweaty palms is you’re having a fight or flight response. If you have sweaty palms you can run and climb up a tree more easily, because sweaty palms gives you extra grip to hold onto things. But it’s an evolutionary throwback, something that happens when adrenaline is released. So sweaty palms and feet might have made sense, because it would enable you to grip better if you were running or climbing.

Do men sweat more than women?

No. There’s variability across our species, and some people will sweat more than other people, and that’s partly to do with the variability in our DNA. But I can’t believe that women sweat less than men. I think there are more taboos around women sweating than there are around men sweating. Things are beginning to change, but for too long there has been this idea that it isn’t a womanly thing to do, which I think is a tragedy.

Dr Vybarr Cregan-Reid is Reader in English and Environmental Humanities at the University of Kent, and author of Footnotes: How Running Makes us Human. He is currently working on his third book, Primate Change: how the world we’ve made is remaking us.

This piece originally appeared on lesmills.com.

Healthy Snacking Options

We all have moments during the week when food seems to be the right answer. The only answer. We’re told that snacking isn’t healthy, but surely, it’s unhealthy to leave our bodies empty. Our bodies know what they want, and if that means a quick snack mid-afternoon, what’s so wrong with that?
Go on, treat yourself to something. But what makes snacking unhealthy is when you eat too much or something that doesn’t benefit your body whatsoever. A chocolate bar or slice of cake may look and sound tempting, but the sugar rush won’t last long, and you’ll be wanting to snack again pretty soon. Choose something a little healthier and something that will keep you full until your next meal.

Here is a list of great snacks you can keep in your bag or desk at work to help you get through the day. Obviously, we don’t suggest you eat a whole packet of the foods to keep you going!

Seeds and Nuts

These are easy to store and carry around with you for an easy snack as they can be kept in a cupboard or draw for weeks. Nuts and seeds are great sources of proteins and vitamins so are a delicious option for keeping you full. We recommend walnuts, cashews, pistachios and almonds but of course you can have a mix or buy a bag of a certain kind and keep them for when you’re in times of need.

Fresh and Dried Fruit

If your sweet tooth needs to be satisfied, fruits are a great way to do that. Whether you choose to pick up an apple, banana, orange, or go for a pack of dried fruits that can be kept in your office desk for the week, you can’t go wrong with fruit. Delicious dried fruit options are apricots and mango pieces as they are sweet and refreshing. Berries are also a great choice, especially if you normally snack on sweets and are looking to replace those.

Cereal/Protein Bars

If you like biscuits or want a snack that feels a little more substantial, healthy bars are the way forward. Whether you go with cereal, flapjack, protein bars, or even make your own, they are a great healthy snacking alternative to quickly fill you up. Just make sure to watch out for bars with a lot of sugar in, or ones that are dipped in chocolate.

Chopped Vegetables

Sometimes you need a snack that’s crunchy and refreshing, and veggies are great for that! Quickly prepare a bag of chopped peppers, celery and cucumber sticks before you come to work. They are great for munching on and can quickly fill you up. Another option is cherry tomatoes which are just as yummy and can be added to your veggie mix or taken on their own! Vegetables are so good for us, and snacking on them is an easy way to fit in your 5 a day!

Hopefully this list inspires you to rethink your snacking habits and pushes you to choose healthier options. Let us know if you have any other suggestions for the healthy snacking list!

Remember to go with the healthier option! Happy snacking!

Clothing & Footwear for the Gym

Whether you’re an avid gym goer, runner, athlete, gymnast, or someone who has recently started exercising, choosing the right clothing and trainers to wear is important. Let’s start by looking at clothing.

Having the right equipment and clothing can boost your confidence, as well as improve performance. Scientific studies have been done, showing us that what we wear can really affect how we perform a task. Wearing workout clothing puts you in a certain mind frame, improving your overall performance. Specialised outfit pieces can also add protection to the wearer, and prevent injuries as it’s specially made to suit certain people and certain sports. This should be important for every sports person and gym goer, as injury can be dangerous. But with the right clothing, you can have more freedom of movement, improving your workout out and sports sessions.

So, what should you wear? This can depend on what you’re doing, and if there is a uniform, but if you can wear what you wish, make sure you’re comfortable, as if not, you won’t enjoy what you’re doing, and you will quickly become uncomfortable. Lightweight and breathable clothing is recommended for all sports and gym work so you can continue working without feeling heavy and bulky from your clothes. This type of clothing can help you keep cool and dry in the gym also. It’s important your workout wear is appropriate for what you plan to do and for where you are. Make sure you’re warm in colder weathers, and if you plan on really working up a sweat, tight clothing can be uncomfortable to remove after a session. A final point to make if to not wear jewellery. This seems a simple one, but jewellery can be dangerous to wear in sports and around certain equipment in the gym. This is obviously optional, but many sports teams request that you don’t wear jewellery whilst training or during play, but this isn’t always necessary in the gym.

Looking for new workout clothes sounds exciting, and they truly do improve performance, but what are actual benefits of clothes that may cost quite a bit? Like mentioned, workout clothing can keep your muscles warm, preventing strain and injury. It’s important to look after you body and rest as part of your fitness routine, and if your clothes can help in anyway, it takes pressure off of you. So as well as motivating you to work harder, the right clothing for the gym can actually aid you whilst working out. So what about footwear for the gym?

Firstly, if you’re just starting out, you don’t need to invest in expensive shoes. Wait until you know your body and foot type, as well as what kind of exercising you will be doing most. Then you can spend your money on trainers that will work best with you. You also want to watch out for trainers that look exciting with air bubbles, cushioning, and shock absorbers. Even though these look the best, there will still be pressure on your feet whilst working out, and they can be more expensive than other trainers.

Running

It’s important that running trainers fit well and won’t become loose. You don’t want to be uncomfortable whilst running, or risk your trainers slipping which could cause serious injury. As your feet will be hitting the ground as you move, it’s good to have some protection for your feet, so look for trainers with a padded insole, and that are quite flexible to make running easier.

Weight Lifting

Hard and flat soled shoes are best for lifting weights. This prevents you from slipping when you are stood in a firm solid space, as you don’t want to drastically move when carrying heavy equipment. You need to make sure your trainers have good grip, and are comfortable when lifting weights.

Yoga

Our yoga classes at Gym & Tonic and many others ask people to be bare footed when doing yoga. This allows people to have grip of the floor when doing certain positions, without worrying about slipping and falling over. There are special yoga grip socks you can purchase that provide more friction between your feet and the surface you are working on, but as barefoot is a free option, we'd would be more than tempted to choose that!

Cycling/Spin Cycle Classes

For cycling, we recommend wearing trainers with a stiff sole, so pushing down on the pedals is easy and comfortable. You can purchase special cycling shoes that have clips on the bottom of them so your foot doesn’t slip off of the pedal whilst riding. A few spin classes use pedal clips like this so people can go to a faster speed, but they are not necessary.

HIIT Workouts

For fast paced workouts like this, we recommend shoes that are well fitting, as well as ones that provide good grip and stability, so you don’t slip during a section of the workout. We would say breathability is key with these shoes too. As you are moving around a lot, you need something that allows your feet to get some air, so they don’t become hot, sweaty and uncomfortable.

We haven’t listed any shoes or brands to buy, but with this information, you can go to a trainer store with a better idea of what to look out for, and so you don’t end up spending your money on something that isn’t right.

Do you think having the right workout clothes or trainers is important?

Group Workouts Shown to Improve Mental & Physical Wellbeing

By Carrie Knight for Fit Planet

A new study into the stress-relieving power of group fitness makes world headlines by proving what many have known all along – there is strength in numbers.

As the old proverb says, “necessity is the mother of invention”. When Dr. Dayna Yorks first arrived at medical school in Maine in 2013, she had a big problem. Group fitness classes were nonexistent on the University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine campus, and she knew group exercise was necessary for her to maintain physical and mental health. What did this Les Mills instructor do about it?  She not only brought CXWORX™ to campus, she simultaneously studied the effects of the class on medical students.

Now her research, published in the the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association is gaining worldwide attention, including coverage in more than 30 media outlets, for its overall finding that group fitness improves mental and physical wellbeing.

Those who did at least one class a week had a statistically significant decrease in stress, and an improvement in mental, physical, and emotional quality of life.

Yorks has always excelled in sports. She played college softball (pitcher and first baseman) at university, and was chosen as captain in her senior year. When she graduated team sports ended, and Yorks felt something was missing from her life.

“I somewhat begrudgingly tried a BODYPUMP class on the suggestion of my dad. I would have much rather been lifting big weights on the floor! Turns out that I loved it!” she says. “Group fitness filled the void that was missing as I was no longer a part of a team. I started as an enthusiastic participant, then took the leap to become an instructor about 10 years ago.”

Group exercise kept Yorks fit, provided her with social connections, and offered stress relief. “Exercise has always been my outlet, and by the time I started medical school, group fitness in particular was something I needed to feel grounded, whole, and alive,” she explains.

Without a formal group exercise program at medical school, Yorks once again felt that void. “I infrequently taught free-style classes to small groups of friends in an effort to feel like myself. I’ll never forget being in the [medical school gym’s] locker room, and one of my friends said to me, ‘Dayna, you need to figure out how to create an enduring group fitness program that will live on after you leave campus.’ It was her suggestion that inspired me to do just that.”

She did just that and much more. Yorks wanted to provide her fellow students with something lasting that would not only improve their physical fitness but also provide desperately needed stress relief. “Research has shown that incidences of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder are five-fold higher in medical trainees than their age-matched, non-medical counterparts,” she says. “Additionally, many students and physicians suffer from burnout, fatigue, alcoholism, and even suicide.”

The answer for Yorks was obvious. She set her sights on Les Mills. “I realized that if I could get the school to fund the license for a Les Mills format, then I could effectively lay the foundation for an enduring group fitness program. LES MILLS programs have a strong infrastructure – there are multiple Initial Training Modules across the country for new students to become certified, and instructors are provided with music and choreography, which ensures fresh sounds and safe, effective programming based on science. I chose CXWORX because it’s only a half-hour long, requires minimal equipment, and I knew its focus on core and functional training would be relevant for future physicians.”

Yorks also chose CXWORX because of its potential to affect the way these future doctors practice medicine. “The third leading cause for patients to seek care from a primary care physician is low-back pain, and many times, it can be treated with core exercises,” says Yorks. “By affording medical students a class where they could experience core training first hand, it would hopefully carry over into their future practice as physicians.  Research also shows that medical students who engage in physical exercise are more likely to encourage their patients to do so as well.”

It was during a workout at the gym that her anatomy professor suggested she also consider a research project.  “We both agreed that concrete data on the effects of group fitness on medical student wellness would be helpful in procuring continued funding for the future. I worked in research prior to starting medical school so I was familiar with the process.”

CXWORX was a huge hit and was regularly attended by 70 students and staff. “I’ve never taught to so many people in a CXWORX class in my life,” beams Yorks.

The focus of the research was two-fold: “We wanted to see if participation in group exercise, individual exercise, or no exercise would have an effect on the wellbeing of medical students.”  To that end, Yorks and her team hypothesized that:

  1. Participation in regular exercise would yield decreased perceived stress and increased physical, mental, and emotional quality of life.
  2. Participation in group fitness classes would yield greater stress reduction and quality of life improvement than exercising individually.

Bottom line? They were right!

“Essentially, we found that those who participated in at least one CXWORX class a week had a statistically significant decrease in stress, and an improvement in mental, physical, and emotional quality of life. Those who exercised individually showed improvement in mental quality of life, but no other significant changes were noted. This suggests that participation in group fitness classes could be a solution to improving the wellbeing of medical students.”

Specifically, the data showed the CXWORX group experienced:

  • 6 percent increase in mental Quality of Life (QOL)
  • 8 percent increase in physical QOL
  • 26 percent increase in emotional QOL
  • 2 percent decrease in perceived stress

“The individual exercise group had an 11 percent increase in mental QOL, but otherwise, no other statistically significant changes were observed,” Yorks explains.

Without discounting the well-demonstrated benefits of working out individually, the study suggests the “group effect” does have a particular significance: “The possibility that the social aspects of group exercise improved QOL and decreased stress also cannot be discounted. The social component of group exercise is therapeutic. Furthermore, group exercise classes often use up-tempo music and choreography to make the class more fun and engaging. Bringing together medical students who are all going through similar stresses to work out and have fun may transcend the experience of working out on their own.”

She has been both overwhelmed and thrilled by the media attention her project has attracted. “It certainly was not our intention to take the media by storm, nor were we expecting it,” she says. “Having the study disseminated on such a large scale is also a gift. Our study advocates for a shift in medical education and training to address student and physician wellness, in particular through group fitness. The more people who can become aware of the need for this change and the power of group exercise, the better!”

Today, Yorks is completing residency training to specialize in physical medicine and rehabilitation. “I hope to do additional research in the future, potentially a similar project but for medical residents, which is arguably an even more stressful time in a physician’s career.”

While Yorks’ schedule may seem daunting, she says it’s well worth it. “It was towards the end of my medical education that I became a part of the Les Mills US Trainer team. So yes, juggling all of these roles is challenging! But I can’t imagine my life without all of them. I do the best I can, lead with my heart, and realize it’s okay to be ‘hashtag perfectnever’.”

TAKE FIVE

  • Medical students suffer above average stress-related depression and anxiety – making them an ideal study group
  • The study used Les Mills’ CXWORX classes attended by 70 students and staff
  • Those who attended at least one class per week showed lower stress levels
  • Compared to individual exercisers, those in the group class scored higher for stress-reduction and physical, mental and emotional quality of life
  • It was hypothesized that the social component of group exercise in itself is therapeutic.

Dayna Yorks is a medical doctor and researcher who, as a member of the Les Mills US trainer team, helps inspire and upskill a growing tribe of group fitness instructors.

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This piece originally appeared on lesmills.com.